Jun Fukuda directs the giant rubbery lizard in this, the 13th film of the franchise, which features Gigan , Megalon and Jet Jaguar , creatures sent by the underground kingdom of Seatopia to destroy us pesky above-ground Earthlings. Man and Boy — J. Trombonist Johnson also composed the scores for Cleopatra Jones, Willie Dynamite , and Across th Street with Bobby Womack — featuring the greatest title song of all time! City of the Living Dead [a. The Gates of Hell] — Fabio Frizzi.
What Bava brings to the table is his horror mentality, complete with canted camera angles, crazy mood lighting, and creepy direction. Also known as Dellamorte Dellamore , this Italian production directed by Dario Argento protegee Michele Soavi, is an existential delight, a horror film which embraces the Pirandellian tradition — wherein suffering characters are hyper-aware of themselves as just that — characters. The subplot involving the beautiful Anna Falchi as a mystery woman who appears as several different characters both dead and living brings to mind Luis Bunuel and further enhances the surreal overtones.
Add to that a mind-blowing ending and what you have is a lowbrow zombie flick treading some seriously highbrow water. Filmmaker Josh Johnson sits down with our very own video clerk and resident tapehead, Rockie Juarez, to discuss his documentary Rewind This! I first came across his art more than 15 […]. Powered by Twitter Tools. Support open education with the Neoclassical Theme. Subscribe via RSS. Megalon — Riichiro Manabe Jun Fukuda directs the giant rubbery lizard in this, the 13th film of the franchise, which features Gigan , Megalon and Jet Jaguar , creatures sent by the underground kingdom of Seatopia to destroy us pesky above-ground Earthlings.
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Without river-side streets, Cipolla retained the Castel Sant'Angelo and all its accretions designing around it a public garden in the English picturesque style. The plan's legend lists only utilitarian public buildings such as markets, baths, a parish church, and model workers' housing City approval of the plan was necessary so property owners might develop the land according to a set.
City engineer Alessandro Viviani included Prati di Castello in his master plan for Rome of , which, however, remained unratified.
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In his plan, the street patterns are not geometrically coherent, but at its center, along the river bank, a monumental public building appears to anchor the district with streets at its falnk converging on a piazza behind. According to the interior indicated on Viviani's plan, this building was to have been a theater, the replacement, suggested by Depretis in his draft for the Concorso dello Stato, of the Teatro Apollo at Tor di Nona, slated for demolition for the Tiber embankment Viviani confronted the problem of building in Prati by envisioning a new quarter of a grand nature with its large public, and offered the opportunity for a monumental architectural addition to the Roman landscape.
Zanardelli provided the public building for Prati by designating the site for the Palazzo di Giustizia there in March with the authorizing signatures of Pianciani and Odescalchi It required expropriation from Cahen and the cooperation of Viviani. Prati, in the official Master Plan of , was built around the precedent decision for the Palazzo di Giustizia.
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This plan is a more rigorous amalgam of grids, vistas and tridents that recapitulates Hellenistic, Imperial and Sistine urban motifs in a bourgeois city plan designed as a dormitory district for the Italian bureaucracy. In contrast to the plan, the site for the monumental building has been significantly adjusted bringing it in closer relationship to the Vatican, especially from the major bridge of access from the area of Piazza Navona. The Palazzo di Giustizia is the first modern Roman building realized with its principal facade turned to the river, while maintaining an axial relationship of building to the major street behind it and anchoring the center of the new quarter on a vista down the Via Cicerone.
The bridge played a role in the urbanization of Prati, like that at the Ripetta, in establishing an axis of organization of the area beyond the river. Andrea Busiri-Vici , head architect of the Fabbrica of St. Peter's in these years, proposed three designs for a monumental, triumphal bridge to lead to the Palazzo di Giustizia site City engineer Angelo Vescovali executed from his sober design in travertine.
The inauguration of the bridge was coupled with the unveiling of the Monument to Camillo Cavour in Prati on 23 September , a ceremony which activated and made explicit the processional link between the city and Prati, across the bridge and through the Palazzo di Giustizia then under construction The bridge links the Palazzo di Giustizia directly to the city center at Piazza Navona and rehearses the relationship of bridge-to-building of the Ponte Elio at the Castel Sant'Angelo; however, the modern bridge, the precursor to the more fully-decorated Ponte Vittorio of , offers an alternative access to Prati with a secular iconographical symbolism in the passage toward the piazza dedicated to the courts and Cavour.
A clearance sventramento was planned since to connect the site to the city center, and was an integral feature of the Palazzo di Giustizia competition site plan The cut was to burst through the northern wall of Piazza Navona, to intersect the piazza's axis at the Fontana de' Calderari, and continue to meet the Corsia Agonale, which would at that point have brought the seat of the Senate and the justice institutions into visual relationship.
Funding for the sventramento work came through only in when Zanardelli pressed for a renewal of the Concorso dello Stato bill; demolition uncovered ruins of the Stadium of Domitian. At this time, architect Armando Brasini replanned the northern curve of the piazza with pompous architectural splendor demonstrating the Palazzo di Giustizia's effect on contemporary architecture. The opening of the Navona wall was blocked, however, in A clearance opening at the southern edge of the piazza was also planned that would have designated the origin of the route to the Palazzo di Giustizia at the Piazza Pantaleone, the half-way point of the former "Via Nazionale" as stipulated in the convention21,.
The urban route to the Palazzo di Giustizia was to be integrated with the major artery of secular Rome and characterized by the political figures commemorated along that route, from the monument to Victor Emanuel, turning at Minghetti, to that to Cavour. The central piazza in Prati grew from Viviani's first ideas presented in Plans for the erection of a monument to Cavour in Rome were proposed in the city council since ; yet, the idea of erecting a national monument took precedence Prati attracted the attention of many designers in the context of the first Victor Emanuel Monument competition, such as Erolo Eroli who planned an ensemble of institutional buildings, including a palace of justice, around a "Piazza del Risorgimento Italiano" at the convergence of the Viali Vaticano and Nazionale "dove si potrebbe solennizzare da Roma intera le feste nazionali" At the center, an enormous version of Bramante's Tempietto supported a tumulus of celebratory sculpture.
With the simultaneous designation of the sites for the Victor Emanuel Monument on the Capitoline Hill and the Palazzo di Giustizia in Prati, the monument to Cavour found a suitable location with the ideological tone set by the courts building. The city council designated the piazza in honor of Cavour by October , and thus placed an image of the creator of Italy's ideal ecclesiastical policy before the key institution in implementing it. Municipal and national government forces converged to give Prati, at the base of the Vatican hill, a definitive political stamp which inspired Andrea Busiri-Vici, designing again the architectural terrain between Church and State, to propose in a monument for Prati entitled "La Legge uguale per tutti" The analysis of the expansion of Roma Capitale into the Prati di Castello evidences a clear political move to introduce near to the Vatican the secular juridical institution.
This same ideological and iconographical intention guided the selection of the architectural design for the Palazzo di Giustizia. The architectural competitions were overseen by Zanardelli's. The call for designs, opened only to Italian designers, at first elicited works ranging from the monotonous to the turgid; but everywhere evident was a prevailing consciousness of the project's relationship to its immediate environment of historical structures, exemplified by the unsolicited perspective view provided by Vincenzo Martinucci in which his campanile lined up with the archangel on the fortress and the orb and cross on St.
Even the jury members represented in their range of professional profiles a significant multivalent group. Giovanni Montiroli , the president of the first competition jury manifested a ductile political nature when he adapted his project for the Piazza dell'Esedra, originally prepared for Pius IX, as the Monument to Victor Emanuel II in Andrea Busiri-Vici, who was president of the second competition jury, prepared, among his many projects eloquent of the political situation, a design for the sventramento of the Borgo Spina, the ultimate symbol of the reconciliation of Church and State Reconciliatory intentions are evidenced in the judging criteria; they disapproved of motifs too closely associated with ecclesiastical buildings, such as domes and bell towers, and preferred more secular, horizontal "palazzo" type massings The pattern of their decisions suggests the proposal of a secular architectural equivalent or dialectical complement to the ecclesiastical building type, as is evidenced by the success of Calderini's three successive competition designs which elaborated insistently upon a broad, continuous horizontal three-story elevation.
In the final competition, closely supervised by Zanardelli, Ernesto Basile's Palermo, domed Neo-Imperial design lost to Guglielmo Calderini's rusticated palace inspired by Italian sixteenth-. Perugia, after the expulsion of papal rule and the destruction of the Rocca Paolina, was the arena of his first independent works. His few writings on architecture honor his compatriot, Galeazzo Alessi, and extol Michelangelo's exemplary breadth of creativity, "ambidue immensi e creatori di una nuova arte" Calderini practiced an architectural theory of free inspiration from historical prototypes rather than an imitation of set academic models and he emulated in his era the principled renewal of architecture of the Renaissance as understood in the work of Bramante For the Palazzo di Giustizia, Calderini developed themes from the Italian Classical Cinquecento in an historicist architectural language of formal associations to a range of appropriate historical precedents.
Careful identification and analysis of the historicist nature of the Palazzo di Giustizia will reveal a correspondence between architectural image and political program upon the basic theme of the courthouse before the church.
The composition of the Palazzo di Giustizia presents "una intiera massa, su base quadrilatera, nella zona inferiore del fabbricato [che] fosse assai utile a guadagnare quella imponenza e grandezza che sono necessarie per imprimere il dovuto carattere all'edificio" Academic traditions maintained the rhetorical along with the architectural forms and in nineteenth-century texts "aspetto" appears not in substitution of "style" but describes an essential character of an architectural form beyond connotations of historical idiom.
Calderini's handling is equally vigorous with rusticated Doric and Ionic orders, heavy fenestration ornament, and a remarkable vitality carried throughout the. Calderini's historical sources for the rusticated image may have included the Etruscan arched gates in Perugia, Roman Imperial remains, palaces of the Florentine Renaissance and Mannerist periods, the "stile rustico", and Piranesi and the prison architecture in the Italian Renaissance and French Beaux-Arts, the amalgamation of which underscores his eclectic historicist nature; yet to none of these sources was Calderini tied in an imitative sense.
Rustie stylobates had a particular power for the architect. A similar process of appropriation of an appropriate pre-existing rusticated stylobate was undertaken for the Palazzo di Giustizia in Rome. The papal Palazzo dei Tribunali by Bramante was begun by order of Pope Julius II, the church's greatest temporal ruler and most comprehensive architectural visionary; only the lower portions were. Bramante's project was understood in Calderini's time as the ruins of proud papal ambition and a lost Bramantean masterpiece, according to Emile Zola's cicerone Calderini, in turn, guided his own student, Gustavo Giovannoni , to the first modern study of the structure Just as Bramante's centralized design for New St.
Peter's fixed the ideal Renaissance church type, scholars of the nineteenth century pondered that the Palazzo dei Tribunali, if completed, would have been the quintessential Roman palazzo The nineteenth-century hagiography of architectural history conferred on Bramante a towering status and praises of him - the ability to reform architecture by the rejuvenation of an historical architectural style - coincide with contemporary trends in theory.
Instrumentalizing Bramante's work was central to the education of the architect of the historicist period48, and Calderini, while evoking the unrealized Bramantean masterpiece, simultaneously preempted papal aspirations to temporal power by appropriating the Via Giulia stylobate. The connection is less formal than it is emblematic; the rusticated base served as the basis for the appropriate accent of secular character for a building of temporal justice and would have been inspired as much by Vasari's description as a free and imaginative reconstruction of the building from its impressive remains.
Arturo Calza, writing at the time of the inauguration of the Palazzo di Giustizia, clearly enunciated the relationship between the two buildings and the building programs of Julian Rome and Roma Capitale49,. With Calderini's foundation upon Bramante, the Palazzo di Giustizia stands rightly at the threshold of Church and State relations. The Palazzo di Giustizia lifts an emphatically horizontal profile in Roman skyline in marked contrast to the dominant curvatures of churches' domes. Repeatedly, the designer and the competition juries excluded consideration of any vertical accents like towers or domes and Calderini worked up an imposing mass which recalled his precedent work for a Roman monument, his first Victor Emanuel Monument, in which he sought.
He identified the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the Palazzo Farnese as his specific models for the proportions53 probably in an effort to make his Alessian creation seem more Roman to the judges of the competition yet thereby indicating Bramante, Peruzzi and Michelangelo. Calderini's historicist consciousness which dwelled on the succession of sixteenth-century masters inevitably arrived at a contemplation of the history of Roman architecture guided by the masters of the Fabbrica of St. Any influence of the cathedral, however, manifests itself in dialectical formal terms.
The historicist design of the. Palazzo di Giustizia is both a synthesis of the secular works of Fabbrica masters and a wholly secular image against the background of ecclesiastical symbols in the capital. The plan of the building is roughly square, arranged according to a five-meter modular unit on a network of continuous corridors following planning methods codified by Durand A segregated distribution designates separate routes into and through the building for the public at the center, magistrates from the rear and detainees from below, in "immediata comunicazione con tutti i principali punti del pianoterreno mediante varie scale e scalette"55, models for which were available in recent European constructions as well as the Doge's Palace in Venice.
Distributed across three major floors, the juridical divisions and all their ancillary offices are arranged hierarchically throughout the building : the ground floor for most populous divisions, the piano nobile reserved for the high courts and on the top floor the local civil tribunes with offices and archives distributed around the perimeter. An "ambulatorio centrale" in the center of the building, three bays deep and nineteen bays long, serves as the public vestibule to all the courts and is repeated on the three superimposed floor levels, so it differs from the northern European "Salle des pas perdus" which Calderini rejected for reasons of circulation, climate, and, he says, conformity to local tradition The ambulatorio is demarcated with robust pier masses signaling graphically an intensity at the center of the building which demonstrates a centralized, crystalline quality of organization typical of the appreciation of Bramante's and Michelangelo's plans for St.
Marcello Piacentini , architect of the only other major courts building in Italy, wrote that the Palazzo di Giustizia has "una pianta di taglio grandioso e monumentale - che avrebbe forse suggerito ambienti di altro taglio, come una Chiesa", for whose monumentality "potremo classificare a carattere basilicale giustificata dal prestigio solenne del pretorio pianta atta a dare agli ambienti un significato e una suggestione spirituale per incitare rispetto e soggezione"57, words applicable to the sensations elicited by Rome's greatest churches.
The Cortile d'Onore is the major open space within the building and is wholly ceremonial in its function. Its square arcaded plan derives from the palazzo courtyard, again Calderini cited the Cancelleria and Farnese58, and may have some reference to a basilican church's forecourt such as Calderini was designing with Giuseppe Sacconi for San Paolo fuori le mura in The cortile is significant as the key to the Italian typological identification of the building. Against the well-defined foreign model of the court house building type there was an inverse deficiency of Italian examples.
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As a modern building type with foundations in the eighteenth-century juridical reform, its codification came with French academic research in character60 which would inspire the built projects across Europe. While for Italy, thoughts on the court house building type remained with Alberti and Palladio who developed the idea of re- secularizing the basilica from Vitruvius to reaffirm its pre-Christian origin as a space for forensic orators. In the program for the final competition, the open "Cortile d'Onore" was stipulated in counterdistinction to the "Salle des pas perdus", with obvious nationalistic overtones, which excoriated Basile's design for a grand thermal hall while Calderini had already experimented with the.
Resisting foreign models, a search for an indigenous type was required, and was forged from appropriate historical precedents. This applied to the implicit iconography of the architectural forms which were intended to transmit a trenchant secularity. The inclusion of a cortile helped to define a secular, Italian solution to the new building type. So Calderini, while elaborating on Renaissance palazzi and ancient basilica, posited the new building type in Rome as if to rival in diametrical opposition the accomplishments of sixteenth-century masters in the ecclesiastical type.
The plethora of decorative and sculptural details presents a panorama of iconography on national and secular themes. A bronze quadriga by Ettore Ximenes , a clear pre-Christian allusion to the acroterial sculpture of ancient temples, is the secular answer to the campanile, as was abundantly demonstrated later by the Victor Emanuel Monument's similar commanding bronze groups. Under the entrance archway, a sculptural group by Enrico Quattrini of enthroned Justice flanked by Strength and Law, an alert male and an acquiescent female figure, goes further back through the church tympanum motif to origins in templar pedimental sculpture.
In the cortile the standing Law with book and scepter, also by Quattrini, evokes the pagan idol in her temple cella. Figured keystones present Minerva, Quintino Sella's preferred symbol of. Masculine figures are used to represent the active protectors of the institution : orators, philosophers and images of Hercules at the entrance to the Aula Massima, and suggest a scheme of gendered imagery by which abstract images of law and justice are female, while living sustainers of the law, the jurists, are exclusively male.
The upper-most cornice of the building was originally designed with lions as brackets Many figures of lions had been planned for the building, many more than appear in the final version, but the imagery, perhaps too autocratic, was altered in to figures of kneeling bulls, yoked with laden garlands The image of subjugation overrides any association of the animal to other uses in papal heraldry; similar figures also appear on the Victor Emanuel Monument.
The transformation may have some connection with contemporary attitudes toward the justice system in and of authoritarian abuse of the institution especially against southern unrest, and the yoked bull turned the feature into a didactic notion directed towards the citizenry and its implicit responsibilities.
The Risorgimento Revisited
Throughout the building, monarchic symbols are downplayed and in some documented cases suppressed Savoia arms occur discretely in the decorative program, on the crown of the piazza facade in bronze and above the Aula Massima door where they are held by genii, others held by lions, yet often the shields are tied into place with ribbons like the arms of titular cardinals on churches. Instead, the symbols of a strong and independent justice institution are promulgated. In the right hand of Justice the sword, the medieval symbol distinguishing temporal from spiritual power, appears in preference to the scales common in scenes of the Last Judgement and archangel Michael's attribute bringing an association with papal justice meted out in the fortress nearby.
Non-figural decorations abound.