Mudie, Robert (DNB00)
Its main advantages with respect to other possible candidates were: the fact that it is based on a real Web Browser Mozilla Firefox , thus guaranteeing robustness with respect to any sort of document which can be found on web pages, its native datamodel, based on the OWL language, and its flexible extension mechanism based on the standard OSGi , which left the door open for customization to ESA needs.
The expression Semantic Bookmarking was coined to indicate the process of annotating information from web documents, to acquire new knowledge and represent it through representation models. Its basic functionalities allow for: 1. This model has been implemented inside a Database Service details in  which hosts both the pure metadata entries as well their processed information which is directly accessed for populating the presentation pages of the eoPortal.
The role of this latter layer is to keep track of all the information which is required by the application to perform its functionalities and is typically hidden form the user; in the original version of ST it includes the Annotation Ontology, a small ontology containing a set of concepts used to keep track of user annotations from the web annotated web pages, selected textual entries, timestamps etc…. In order to provide an homogeneous data layer for our framework which is based on technologies and languages of the RDF family, we realized an almost straight porting of the eoPortal metadata model to an ontological representation see fig.
This preserves consistent reference to the eoPortal native data model while guaranteeing interoperability with the specific ontologies that different users may adopt for their personal semantic bookmarks. Microformats consist in specific HTML extensions intended for carrying commonly published semantics, such has contact information, events, reviews, episodic content, which go beyond the range of their hosting language.
The key aspect in both technologies is the same: embedding data inside web pages, which is exactly what we needed to achieve. The main difference syntactic sugar apart between the two resides in the vocabulary generation. We have thus developed an extension for Semantic Turkey specifically designed for recognizing information coded inside web pages according to these languages, and use their content both for populating the user ontology or, again, for submitting it to the semantic repository. Due to its W3C standardization and its flexibility with respect to microformats, we chose RDFa as the main language whose content can be recognized and extracted from web pages, and mapped to the user ontologies.
Semantic Turkey has recognized these data and added buttons they are on the right, with the turkey symbol on top in correspondence of their position in the web page. The user can thus press the buttons and get all the related RDFa it generally involves multiple RDF triples describing a single object collected in one click: he can then decide if the data will be imported as they are i. In the latter case, each object retrieved from the RDFa description can be projected towards a concept of the user domain ontology.
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Property reification may also be used to map properties of one ontology towards classes and roles of the other one. This mapping capability has proved to be sufficient in most of the case, partially facilitated by the lack of specification on data format present in many currently available ontologies such as the already cited SWEET ontologies.
Actually, in our case study, predefined mappings proved to be helpful mostly for submitting info to the portal though this aspect has not been investigated extensively , while their usefulness were limited to very few cases for example, the already cited calendar or geospatial ontologies and microformats when projecting harvested data from the web to the user ontology. The main reason for that resides in the ESA Metadata ontology, which contains few top-level concepts providing a perspective focused over mere data organization, with no evident relation to domain information, so that it was pretty easy to define in advance data projections from the rich user domain ontologies towards the general concepts of the ESA model, while relying on on-the-fly mappings for doing the contrary.
Conclusions and Future Work This paper reports on experimenting with technologies coming from both worlds of Web 2.
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We will probably extend current mapping capabilities of the framework, mainly a to extend the range of achievable mappings, also including raw datatype transformations and more complex mapping patterns and b to facilitate the user in harvesting several objects and in relating them to the adopted domain ontology, by exploiting results from pattern based ontology design  and applying them to our data projection facility.
Adida, B. RDFa Primer. Berners-Lee, T. The Semantic Web: A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities. Scientific American , 5 , Brickley, D. Ciravegna, F. User-system cooperation in document annotation based on information extraction. Springer Verlag. Connolly, D.
Dzbor, M. Opening Up Magpie via Semantic Services. Hiroshima, Japan: November. Gangemi, A. Gil, E. Motta, V.
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Griesi, D. Innsbruck, Austria. Huynh, D. November, Galway, Ireland. Lassila, O. This demand may be having unintended consequences in detracting from meaningful interpretation and use of assessment data. A shift may be required to decrease the volume of data collection and reorient the current focus on reporting and compliance in favor of devoting more time, support, and resources to data analysis, interpretation, and use Lesaux and Marietta, ; Lesaux et al.
There exists an array of tools that, when selected wisely and according to the purpose for which they were intended, administered appropriately, and interpreted accurately, can inform practice and policy to help create successful learning environments and achieve strong outcomes for children. The terms used in any assessment discussion e. At appropriate ages, all of these sources can be useful. Screening is the use of a brief procedure or tool to identify children who may require a more in-depth diagnostic assessment to determine whether they need more in-depth intervention services.
When such services are needed, the follow-up typically requires coordination among families, early educators, and medical or early intervention specialists NRC, Screening competencies include the knowledge and ability to help ensure that health and developmental screenings are being administered at the right stages and using appropriate, valid screening tools; skills in early identification of the potential need for further assessment and referral for developmental delays, mental health issues, and other such concerns; skills to help families find necessary resources; and skills for follow-up on the outcomes of referrals HRSA, n.
Diagnostic assessment is used to better describe an identified problem, to locate a cause, or both. A child identified by a screening assessment as possibly having delayed language development, for example, needs further assessment to determine whether an actual delay exists; whether there are other, related delays e. Research indicates that formative assessment is an effective teaching strategy Akers et al.
It helps all children learn, but helps lower-achieving children the most. They gain not only subject-matter knowledge but also cognitive competencies often already attained by higher-achieving children.
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Formative assessment is an important part of the cycle of understanding the levels of thinking at which students are operating, identifying the next level of thinking they should learn, and matching this to educational activities to support that learning Clements and Sarama, ; Clements et al. Compared with assessments that are merely curriculum based, curriculum-embedded assessments have the potential to address higher-level thinking and understanding, which has the added advantage of being intrinsically more interesting to students. In addition, although there is reasonable concern that assessments can narrow curriculum and teaching, comprehensive, research-based assessment instruments often individually administered Clements et al.
Summative assessments typically are carried out at the completion of a program of learning, such as at the end of an instructional unit, to de-. Summative assessments can be used for multiple purposes. In some cases, they are used for accountability, and sometimes they are administered by educators themselves to be used for that purpose. Caring for our children, national health and safety performance standards: Guidelines for early care and early education programs.
The standards for educational and psychological testing. Akers, L. Grosso, S. Atkins-Burnett, K.
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